Public health alert: Mpox (previously called monkeypox)

Last updated 3 July 2024
Public health alert: Mpox (previously called monkeypox)

Since April 2024, local transmission of mpox (previously called monkeypox) has been recorded in Queensland and Victoria. There have been 2 further cases of mpox in the Brisbane South PHN region in June 2024. Instances of mpox continue to be reported internationally.

What are the symptoms/signs of mpox?

Mpox symptoms generally develop 5 to 21 days following close or intimate contact with someone with mpox or contaminated material such as bedding, towels and clothing.

Atypical or very mild illness may present in partially or fully vaccinated patients.

Symptoms of mpox include:

  • rash or skin lesions (pimples, pustules or vesicles) appearing anywhere on the body but commonly anogenital region
  • fever
  • lymphadenopathy
  • headache
  • myalgia
  • fatigue
  • urethritis or rectal pain (proctitis), discharge or bleeding.

How to test for mpox?

Test for mpox in patients with a compatible illness, even if fully vaccinated. Request PCR testing for mpox from suitable samples. Lesion specimens are preferred, ideally from more than one lesion (swab fluid from a vesicle or pustule using a dry swab, or lesion tissue or crust in a dry container).

Others suitable samples include:

  • anorectal swab from patients presenting with proctitis
  • nasopharyngeal/throat swab.

Consider alternative diagnoses such as syphilis, herpes simplex virus, or varicella zoster virus, and offer routine STI screening.

Wear personal protective equipment (PPE) including a gown, surgical mask, gloves, and eye protection when examining and collecting samples.

Patients with suspected mpox should be advised to stay at home and limit contact with others while awaiting testing results. Cover lesions with dressings or clothing.

What are the recommendations for vaccination?

Government funded mpox vaccination (JYNNEOS) is recommended for:

  • sexually active gay, bisexual or other men who have sex with men (MSM) and their sexual partners
  • people who are sex workers
  • people living with HIV who are at risk of mpox exposure.

2 doses of the mpox vaccine, administered by subcutaneous injection (at least 28 days apart) reduces infection risk and disease severity.

Encourage the second dose in people who have only received 1 dose and promote recording to the Australian Immunisation Record (AIR).

How to become a vaccine service provider for mpox?

There is no specific certification to administer mpox vaccines. Any vaccine service provider can administer JYNNEOS vaccines (

The order form is available from Queensland Health: Immunisation Program Vaccine Order Form.

If you are happy to receive stock and offer mpox vaccination, you will be added to the mpox vaccine clinic finder.

Further information

For more information, visit the Queensland Health Mpox (Monkeypox) conditions website: